Understanding Emotional Development
Children are sadly not exempt from the devastation of emotional disorders. It is estimated that one in seven children suffer from a childhood disorder.
Children who have experienced abuse, multiple moves, and institutionalized care are at an even greater risk. Many disorders are present at birth due to a neurological injury.
At risk children have a tendency to develop behavioral problems, peer problems, school problems and at times, delinquency. These are children who absolutely question every direction you give them. They are argumentative and rarely have any intention of following through when asked to complete tasks. Children who are most affected by attachment and trust issues are the ones who came from neglectful and abusive backgrounds. They all have diagnoses such as; learning disabilities, ADHD, mixed adjustment disorders and at the severe level, an attachment disorder.
Further studies indicate the serious affects of alcohol, smoking, drugs and environmental pollutants on the infant in pre and post natal care.Exposure to such toxins causes central nervous system damage such as; mental retardation, ADHD, seizures, learning disabilities and developmental/behavioral disorders.
Examples of disorders that are present or begin in childhood are as follows:
ADHD -- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the inability for the child to stay on task and control impulsive behaviors. The onset of the disorder begins around age 3 and can be typically diagnosed prior to age eight. In the past it appeared to be more prevalent in boys, however girls are becoming more readily diagnosed.
PDD -- Pervasive Developmental Disorder -- Autism is a most mysterious disorder present at birth that can have devastating affects on a child. The symptoms include developmental delays in language, cognitive and motor skills. The child is unable to fully interact with the world around them. Diagnosis is typically made around age two to three. Sensory Integrative Dysfunction can be included in this paragraph; however SID requires deeper detail.
FAS/FAE -- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is the exposure to toxins, in this case alcohol to the developing fetus. FAS causes learning lags, including mental retardation, facial and physical deformities, ADHD and behavioral related concerns. The children have a very difficult time understanding cause and effect relationships. Diagnosis can be made at birth. FAE is a form of FAS without the facial characteristics, however, FAE causes learning difficulties and ADD/ADHD.
Anxiety disorders -- Phobias, panic attacks, obsessive compulsive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are examples of emotional disorders that can result due to stressors or abusive incidences in an individualâ€™s life.
PTSD -- Post-Traumatic Stress disorder is the result of a traumatic event in an individual's life. PTSD is common in children who have suffered from child abuse.
Conduct disorders -- Persistent behaviors that are hurtful to others and usually against the law. Children with conduct disorders display behaviors such as; lying, running away, stealing, school problems, and general delinquency issues.
Sensory Integration Dysfunction -- sensory experiences include touch, movement, body awareness, sight, sound, and even the pull of gravity. The process of the brain organizing and interpreting this information is called sensory integration. Sensory integration provides a crucial foundation for later, more complex learning and behavior.
For most children, sensory integration develops in the course of ordinary childhood activities. But for some children, sensory integration does not develop as efficiently as it should. When the process is disordered, a number of problems in learning, development, or behavior may become evident.
From Mothers to Others
As the American family has been reshaped during the last five decades, child care has become widespread while shortages in child-care have become proverbial.
In 1960, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, 88 percent of American children lived with both parents and fewer than one in five mothers worked outside the home.
But by 1998, nearly four decades later, the percentage of children living with both parents had dropped 20 points to 68 percent, and nearly two out of three mothers were working at least part time.
Nationwide, there are 105,000 licensed centers and 286,000 licensed family child-care homes. But in contemporary America, child-care options are quickly bumping up against their logical limit.
With the growth of weekend employment and night shifts, this summer a Texas entrepreneur hopes to roll out a national chain of for-profit, always-open child-care centers that parents could book for as many as 14 hours a day, including overnights, meals, and transportation to school.
His concept has already been test-marketed to late-night casino workers in Las Vegas, and it's been a big success for parents and investors.
Public Agenda, a research and public opinion organization, notes that child care as we know it today began with Depression-era nursery schools, created by the Works Progress Administration to employ jobless teachers.
Then, during the 1940s war effort, child care was provided to a generation of mothers who labored in factories and plants nationwide.
After that, some women never returned to full-time child care and homemaking, and more moms in the workplace for longer hours became a reality.
Today, jobs and careers for mothers outside the home are often the norm. For many people, such work pays important economic and psychological dividends. Others have been forced into the workplace as welfare reform has not only given many single mothers job training but required them to earn wages. Career-oriented mothers with young children often maintain part-time employment in their chosen field, hoping it will help their reentry into professional life. Motherhood is becoming a supplement to, not the centerpiece of, the identity of American women. As birthrates have declined and women live longer, the job of raising children is increasingly a season of life.